III. Vocabulary

A. Guess the meaning of these words from the way they are used in the article. Check the words in a dictionary and put the correct word in each space in this extract.

(alternative, double, run, traffic, trapped, remote, public, profitable, tickets, roads).

The British love their cars: over 66 per cent of families own one or more cars. According to the Department of Transport, 1) _______ on all roads will 2)________ during the next 30 years. Britain in the early 1990s, had a large road – building programme, but experience showed that more 3)_______ led to more traffic. An increasing number of people want money to be invested in 4) _______ transport rather than new roads.

Train 5)_______ may appear to be expensive, but this form of transport is a fast and environmentally friendly 6)_______ to using a car.

Coaches are long-distance buses. Travelling by coach is cheaper than by train. They go to more 7)_______ or isolated places than trains. At the other end of the national experience are villages, where it is no longer profitable to 8)_______ bus services as most people have cars. So non – drivers, usually the elderly, the young and the poor, are 9)_______ in die villages or rely on the kindness of their neighbours if they shop. It is therefore no longer 10)_______ to run a shop in a die village. Such economic logic frees some people but severely restricts others.

(The Source: adapted from In Britain by M. Vaughan Rees. International Publishers, 1999. p.68)

B. These are answers to questions about the British transport article. What questions do you think were asked?

1. Over 66%.

2. During the next 30 years.

3. In the early 1990s.

4. In public transport.

5. Fast and environmentally friendly.

6. To more remote and isolated places.

7. No longer profitable.

8. Non – drivers.

C. The following words from the article collocate with each other. Make up collocations and fill in the gaps:

1. to foster … ; 2. there is no black …. ; 3. to score …. ; 4. to make … ; 5. knowledge-based … ; 6. research … ; 7. Gross Domestic … ; 8. to dream up … ; 9. to boost … ; 10. poor.

1) economy; 2) high (top marks); 3) and developments; 4) record; 5) innovation; 6) and white answer; 7) sophisticated products; 8) output; 9) product; 10) the grade.

1. Decades later, innovation and the ____________ economy are all the rage. 2. Governments have good reason to _______ innovation. 3. There is no black _______ because performance varies according to the gauge that is used. 4. Britain undoubtedly __________ high in basic scientific work. 5. Many of Britain’s youngsters fail to ________ the grade. 6. This disappointing performance reflects a poor record in _______ and development. 7. Britain spends 1.8 % of _________ Product on R&D. 8. Banks are keen to recruit rocket scientists to _________ sophisticated financial products. 9. Investment would business output by 13 %. 10. But Britain’s ________ record in basic schooling should puncture any premature celebration.